President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940, which created the country’s first peacetime draft and formally established the Selective Service System as an independent federal agency. From 1948 until 1973, during both peacetime and periods of war, men were drafted to fill vacancies in the armed forces which could not be filled through voluntary means. In 1973, the draft ended, and the U.S. converted to an all-volunteer military. Despite this change, President Carter reinstituted registration with the Selective Service in 1980 over fears of a possible war with the Soviet Union. Registration continues today just in case a sudden need for servicemen arises in a future crisis.